The fundamental law of Hungary*

Article I

(1) The coat of arms of Hungary is a vertically divided shield with a pointed base. The left field contains eight horizontal bars of red and silver. The right field has a red background and depicts a base of three green hills with a golden crown atop the higher central hill from which rises a silver patriarchal cross. The Holy Crown rests on top of the shield.

(2) The flag of Hungary features three horizontal bands of equal width coloured red, white and green from top to bottom as the symbols of strength, fidelity and hope, respectively.

(3) The anthem of Hungary is the poem Himnusz by KÖLCSEY Ferenc set to music by ERKEL Ferenc.

(4) The coat of arms and the flag may also be used in other historically developed forms. The detailed rules for the use of the coat of arms and the flag, as well as the state decorations shall be laid down in a cardinal Act.

Article J

(1) The national holidays of Hungary are:

a) the 15th day of March, in memory of the 1848–49 Revolution and War of Independence,

b) the 20th day of August, in memory of the foundation of the State and King Saint Stephen the State Founder, and

c) the 23rd day of October, in memory of the 1956 Revolution and War of Independence.

(2) The official state holiday is the 20th day of August.

Article K

The official currency of Hungary is the forint.

Article L

(1) (1) Hungary shall protect the institution of marriage as the union of a man and a woman established by voluntary decision, and the family as the basis of the survival of the nation. Family ties shall be based on marriage or the relationship between parents and children.

(2) Hungary shall encourage the commitment to have children.

(3) The protection of families shall be regulated by a cardinal Act.

Article M

(1) The economy of Hungary shall be based on work which creates value, and on freedom of enterprise.

(2) Hungary shall ensure the conditions of fair economic competition. Hungary shall act against any abuse of a dominant position, and shall protect the rights of consumers.

Article N

(1) Hungary shall apply the principle of balanced, transparent and sustainable budget management.

(2) Parliament and the Government shall have primary responsibility for the application of the principle referred to in Paragraph (1).

(3) In performing their duties, the Constitutional Court, courts, local governments and other state organs shall be obliged to observe the principle referred to in Paragraph (1).

Article O

Everyone shall be responsible for him- or herself, and shall be obliged to contribute to the performance of state and community tasks according to his or her abilities and possibilities.

Article P

(1) Natural resources, in particular arable land, forests and the reserves of water, biodiversity, in particular native plant and animal species, as well as cultural assets form the common heritage of the nation; it shall be the obligation of the State and everyone to protect and maintain them, and to preserve them for future generations.

(2) The limits and conditions for acquisition of ownership and for use of arable land and forests necessary for achieving the objectives referred to in Paragraph (1), as well as the rules concerning the organisation of integrated agricultural production and concerning family farms and other agricultural holdings shall be laid down in a cardinal Act.

Article Q

(1) In order to create and maintain peace and security, and to achieve the sustainable development of humanity, Hungary shall strive for cooperation with all the peoples and countries of the world.

(2) In order to comply with its obligations under international law, Hungary shall ensure that Hungarian law be in conformity with international law.

(3) Hungary accepts the generally recognised rules of international law. Other sources of international law shall become part of the Hungarian legal system by publication in legal regulations.

Article R

(1) The Fundamental Law shall be the foundation of the legal system of Hungary.

(2) The Fundamental Law and legal regulations shall be binding on everyone.

(3) The provisions of the Fundamental Law shall be interpreted in accordance with their purposes, the National Avowal contained therein and the achievements of our historical constitution.

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