The fundamental law of Hungary*

Article XI

(1) Every Hungarian citizen shall have the right to education.

(2) Hungary shall ensure this right by extending and generalising public education, by providing free and compulsory primary education, free and generally accessible secondary education, and higher education accessible to everyone according to his or her abilities, and by providing financial support as provided for by an Act to those receiving education.

(3) An Act may provide that financial support of higher education studies shall be subject to participation for a definite period in employment or to exercising for a definite period of entrepreneurial activities, regulated by Hungarian law.

Article XII

(1) Everyone shall have the right to freely choose his or her work, occupation and to engage in entrepreneurial activities. Everyone shall have the obligation to contribute to the enrichment of the community through his or her work, in accordance with his or her abilities and possibilities.

(2) Hungary shall strive to create the conditions ensuring that everyone who is able and willing to work has the opportunity to do so.

Article XIII

(1) Everyone shall have the right to property and succession. Property shall entail social responsibility.

(2) Property may only be expropriated exceptionally, in the public interest and in the cases and ways provided for by an Act, subject to full, unconditional and immediate compensation.

Article XIV

(1) Hungarian citizens shall not be expelled from the territory of Hungary and may return from abroad at any time. Foreigners staying in the territory of Hungary may only be expelled under a lawful decision. Collective expulsion shall be prohibited.

(2) No one shall be expelled or extradited to a State where he or she would be in danger of being sentenced to death, being tortured or being subjected to other inhuman treatment or punishment.

(3) Hungary shall, upon request, grant asylum to non-Hungarian citizens being persecuted or having a well-founded fear of persecution in their native country or in the country of their usual residence for reasons of race, nationality, membership of a particular social group, religion or political belief, if they do not receive protection from their country of origin or from any other country.

Article XV

(1) Everyone shall be equal before the law. Every human being shall have legal capacity.

(2) Hungary shall guarantee the fundamental rights to everyone without discrimination and in particular without discrimination on grounds of race, colour, sex, disability, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or any other status.

(3) Women and men shall have equal rights.

(4) By means of separate measures, Hungary shall promote the achievement of equality of opportunity and social inclusion.

(5) By means of separate measures, Hungary shall protect families, children, women, the elderly and persons living with disabilities.

Article XVI

(1) Every child shall have the right to the protection and care necessary for his or her proper physical, mental and moral development.

(2) Parents shall have the right to choose the upbringing to be given to their children.

(3) Parents shall be obliged to take care of their minor children. This obligation shall include the provision of schooling for their children.

(4) Adult children shall be obliged to take care of their parents if they are in need.

Article XVII

(1) Workers and employers shall cooperate with each other with a view to ensuring jobs and the sustainability of the national economy, and to other community goals.

(2) Workers, employers and their organisations shall have the right, as provided for by an Act, to negotiate with each other and conclude collective agreements, and to take collective action to defend their interests, including the right of workers to discontinue work.

(3) Every worker shall have the right to working conditions which respect his or her health, safety and dignity.

(4) Every worker shall have the right to daily and weekly rest periods and to an annual period of paid leave.

Article XVIII

(1) The employment of children shall be prohibited, except for cases specified in an Act where there is no risk to the their physical, mental or moral development.

(2) By means of separate measures, Hungary shall ensure the protection of young people and parents at work.

Article XIX

(1) Hungary shall strive to provide social security to all of its citizens. Every Hungarian citizen shall be entitled to assistance in the case of maternity, illness, disability, handicap, widowhood, orphanage and unemployment for reasons outside of his or her control, as provided for by an Act.

(2) Hungary shall implement social security for the persons referred to in Paragraph (1) and for other persons in need through a system of social institutions and measures.

(3) The nature and extent of social measures may be determined by an Act in accordance with the usefulness to the community of the beneficiary’s activity.

(4) Hungary shall contribute to ensuring the livelihood for the elderly by maintaining a general state pension system based on social solidarity and by allowing for the operation of voluntarily established social institutions. The conditions of entitlement to state pension may be laid down in an Act with regard to the requirement for stronger protection for women.

Article XX

(1) Everyone shall have the right to physical and mental health.

(2) Hungary shall promote the application of the right referred to in Paragraph (1) by an agriculture free of genetically modified organisms, by ensuring access to healthy food and drinking water, by organising safety at work and healthcare provision, by supporting sports and regular physical exercise, as well as by ensuring the protection of the environment.

Latest Video
János Áder’s inaugurual speech
10th May 2012
János Áder’s inaugural speech
About equal standards, respect and performance