The fundamental law of Hungary*

Article XXI

(1) Hungary recognises and enforces the right of everyone to a healthy environment.

(2) Anyone who causes damage to the environment shall be obliged to restore it or to bear the costs of restoration, as provided for by an Act.

(3) It shall be prohibited to import pollutant waste to Hungary for the purpose of disposal.

Article XXII

(1) Hungary shall strive to ensure decent housing conditions and access to public services for everyone.

(2) The State and local governments shall also contribute to creating decent housing conditions by striving to ensure accommodation for people without a dwelling.

(3) In order to protect public policy, public security, public health and cultural values, an Act or a local government decree may, with respect to a specific part of public space, provide that staying in public space as a habitual dwelling shall be illegal.

Article XXIII

(1) Every adult Hungarian citizen shall have the right to vote and to be voted for in elections of Members of Parliament, local government representatives and mayors, and of Members of the European Parliament.

(2) Every adult citizen of another Member State of the European Union with residence in Hungary shall have the right to vote and to be voted for in elections of local government representatives and mayors, and of Members of the European Parliament.

(3) Every adult person recognised as a refugee, immigrant or resident in Hungary shall have the right to vote in elections of local government representatives and mayors.

(4) A cardinal Act may provide that the right to vote and to be voted for, or its completeness shall be subject to residence in Hungary, and the eligibility to be voted for shall be subject to additional criteria.

(5) In elections of local government representatives and mayors voters may vote at their place of residence or registered place of stay. Voters may exercise their right to vote at their place of residence or registered place of stay.

(6) Those disenfranchised by a court for a criminal offence or limited mental capacity shall not have the right to vote and to be voted for. Citizens of another Member State of the European Union with residence in Hungary shall not have the right to be voted for if they have been excluded from the exercise of this right in their State pursuant a legal regulation, a court decision or an authority decision of their State.

(7) Everyone having the right to vote in elections of Members of Parliament shall have the right to participate in national referendums. Everyone having the right to vote in elections of local government representatives and mayors shall have the right to participate in local referendums.

(8) Every Hungarian citizen shall have the right to hold public office according to his or her aptitude, qualifications and professional competence. Public offices that shall not be held by members or officials of political parties shall be specified by an Act.

Article XXIV

(1) Everyone shall have the right to have his or her affairs handled impartially, fairly and within a reasonable time by the authorities . Authorities shall be obliged to give reasons for their decisions, as provided for by an Act.

(2) Everyone shall have the right to compensation for any damage unlawfully caused to him or her by the authorities in the performance of their duties, as provided for by an Act.

Article XXV

Everyone shall have the right to submit, either individually or jointly with others, written applications, complaints or proposals to any organ exercising public power.

Article XXVI

The State shall strive to use the latest technical solutions and the achievements of science to make its operation efficient, raise the standard of public services, improve the transparency of public affairs, and promote equality of opportunity.

Article XXVII

(1) Everyone staying lawfully in the territory of Hungary shall have the right to move freely and to freely choose his or her place of stay.

(2) Every Hungarian citizen shall have the right to enjoy the protection of Hungary during his or her stay abroad.

Article XXVIII

(1) Everyone shall have the right to have any charge against him or her, or his or her rights and obligations in any litigation, adjudicated within a reasonable time in a fair and public trial by an independent and impartial court established by an Act.

(2) No one shall be considered guilty until his or her criminal liability has been established by the final decision of a court.

(3) Persons subject to criminal proceedings shall have the right to defence at all stages of the proceedings. Defence counsels shall not be held liable for their opinion expressed while providing legal defence.

(4) No one shall be held guilty of or be punished for an act which at the time when it was committed did not constitute a criminal offence under Hungarian law or, within the scope specified by an international treaty or a legal act of the European Union, under the law of another State.

(5) Paragraph (4) shall not prejudice the prosecution or conviction of any person for any act which, at the time when it was committed, was a criminal offence according to the generally recognised rules of international law.

(6) With the exception of extraordinary cases of legal remedy laid down in an Act, no one shall be prosecuted or convicted for a criminal offence for which he or she has already been finally acquitted or convicted in Hungary or, within the scope specified by an international treaty or a legal act of the European Union, in another State, as provided for by an Act.

(7) Everyone shall have the right to seek legal remedy against any court, authority or other administrative decision which violates his or her rights or legitimate interests.

Article XXIX

(1) Nationalities living in Hungary are constituent parts of the State. Every Hungarian citizen belonging to a nationality shall have the right to freely express and preserve his or her identity. Nationalities living in Hungary shall have the right to use their mother tongue, to use names in their own languages individually and collectively, to nurture their own cultures, and to receive education in their mother tongues.

(2) Nationalities living in Hungary shall have the right to establish their self-government at both local and national level.

(3) A cardinal Act shall lay down the detailed rules relating to the rights of nationalities living in Hungary, the nationalities, the requirements for recognition as a nationality, and the rules relating to the election of the self-governments of nationalities at local and national level. A cardinal Act may provide that recognition as a nationality shall be subject to a certain length of time of presence and to the initiative of a certain number of persons declaring to be members of the nationality concerned.

Article XXX

(1) Everyone shall contribute to covering common needs according to his or her capabilities and to his or her participation in the economy.

(2) For persons raising children, the extent of contribution to covering common needs shall be determined by taking into consideration the costs of raising children.

Article XXXI

(1) Every Hungarian citizen shall be obliged to defend the Homeland.

(2) Hungary shall maintain a volunteer reserve system for national defence purposes.

(3) During a state of national crisis, or if Parliament decides so during a state of preventive defence, adult male Hungarian citizens with residence in Hungary shall perform military service. If military service involving the use of arms is incompatible with the conscientious belief of the person obliged to perform military service, he shall perform unarmed service. The forms and detailed rules for military service shall be laid down in a cardinal Act.

(4) For the duration of a state of national crisis, adult Hungarian citizens with residence in Hungary may be ordered to perform work for national defence purposes, as provided for by a cardinal Act.

(5) For adult Hungarian citizens with residence in Hungary civil protection obligation may be introduced in the interest of performing national defence and disaster management tasks, as provided for by a cardinal Act.

(6) In the interest of performing national defence and disaster management tasks everyone may be ordered to provide economic and material services, as provided for by a cardinal Act.



Latest Video
Speech of President János Áder At United Nations' General assembly
25th September 2012
Speech of President János Áder
At United Nations' General assembly